The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке

Залог – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия, выраженного сказуемым. Как уже было сказано выше, в английском языке имеется два залога: The Active Voice И The Passive Voice.

We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action.

Example: Appointments are required in such cases.

We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence.


To be + past participle

How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:

– object of the “active” sentence becomes subject in the “passive” sentence

– subject of the “active” sentence becomes “object” in the “passive” sentence”

Active: Peter builds a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.

Active:PeterBuildsA house.Simple Present
Passive:A houseIs builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterBuiltA house.Simple Past
Passive:A houseWas builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterHas builtA house.Present Perfect
Passive:A houseHas been builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterWill buildA house.Will-future
Passive:A houseWill be builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterCan buildA house.Modals
Passive:A houseCan be builtBy Peter.

Сводная таблица:

tense active passive
Simple PresentPeter builds

a house.
A house is built by Peter.
Present ContinuousPeter is building a house.A house is being built by Peter.
Present PerfectPeter has built a houseA house has been built by Peter.
Present Perfect ContinuousPeter has been building a house.—————-
Simple PastPeter built a house.A house was built by Peter.
Past ContinuousPeter was building a house.A house was being built by Peter.
Past PerfectPeter had built a house.A house had been built by Peter.
Past Perfect ContinuousPeter had been building a house.—————-
Will-futurePeter will build a house.A house will be built by Peter.
Future ContinuousPeter will be building a house.—————-
Future PerfectPeter will have built a house.A house will have been built by Peter.
Going to-futurePeter is going to build a house in summer.A house is going to be built in summer by Peter.

Обратите внимание на позицию предлога!

Active sentence Passive sentence
Someone broke into the pet shop.The pet shop was broken into.

Не все предложения можно переделать из the Active Voice в the Passive Voice:

They traveled to Lisbon last summer.

I have a shower every morning.

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The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке