The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке

Залог — это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия, выраженного сказуемым. Как уже было сказано выше, в английском языке имеется два залога: The Active Voice И The Passive Voice.

We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action.

Example: Appointments are required in such cases.

We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence.

Форма

To be + past participle

How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:

— object of the «active» sentence becomes subject in the «passive» sentence

— subject of the «active» sentence becomes «object» in the «passive» sentence»

Active: Peter builds a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.

Примеры
Active: Peter Builds A house. Simple Present
Passive: A house Is built By Peter.
Active: Peter Built A house. Simple Past
Passive: A house Was built By Peter.
Active: Peter Has built A house. Present Perfect
Passive: A house Has been built By Peter.
Active: Peter Will build A house. Will-future
Passive: A house Will be built By Peter.
Active: Peter Can build A house. Modals
Passive: A house Can be built By Peter.

Сводная таблица:

tense active passive
Simple Present Peter builds a house. A
house is built by Peter.
Present Continuous Peter is building a house. A house is being built by Peter.
Present Perfect Peter has built a house A house has been built by Peter.
Present Perfect Continuous Peter has been building a house. —————-
Simple Past Peter built a house. A house was built by Peter.
Past Continuous Peter was building a house. A house was being built by Peter.
Past Perfect Peter had built a house. A house had been built by Peter.
Past Perfect Continuous Peter had been building a house. —————-
Will-future Peter will build a house. A house will be built by Peter.
Future Continuous Peter will be building a house. —————-
Future Perfect Peter will have built a house. A house will have been built by Peter.
Going to-future Peter is going to build a house in summer. A house is going to be built in summer by Peter.
Примечание:

Обратите внимание на позицию предлога!

Active sentence Passive sentence
Someone broke into the pet shop. The pet shop was broken into.

Не все предложения можно переделать из the Active Voice в the Passive Voice:

They traveled to Lisbon last summer.

I have a shower every morning.


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The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке