The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке

Залог – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия, выраженного сказуемым. Как уже было сказано выше, в английском языке имеется два залога: The Active Voice И The Passive Voice.

We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action.

Example: Appointments are required in such cases.

We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence.

Форма

To be + past participle

How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:

– object of the “active” sentence becomes subject in the “passive” sentence

– subject of the “active” sentence becomes “object” in the “passive” sentence”

Active: Peter builds a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.

Примеры
Active:PeterBuildsA house.Simple Present
Passive:A houseIs builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterBuiltA house.Simple Past
Passive:A houseWas builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterHas builtA house.Present Perfect
Passive:A houseHas been builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterWill buildA house.Will-future
Passive:A houseWill be builtBy Peter.
Active:PeterCan buildA house.Modals
Passive:A houseCan be builtBy Peter.

Сводная таблица:

tense active passive
Simple PresentPeter builds

a house.
A house is built by Peter.
Present ContinuousPeter is building a house.A house is being built by Peter.
Present PerfectPeter has built a houseA house has been built by Peter.
Present Perfect ContinuousPeter has been building a house.—————-
Simple PastPeter built a house.A house was built by Peter.
Past ContinuousPeter was building a house.A house was being built by Peter.
Past PerfectPeter had built a house.A house had been built by Peter.
Past Perfect ContinuousPeter had been building a house.—————-
Will-futurePeter will build a house.A house will be built by Peter.
Future ContinuousPeter will be building a house.—————-
Future PerfectPeter will have built a house.A house will have been built by Peter.
Going to-futurePeter is going to build a house in summer.A house is going to be built in summer by Peter.
Примечание:

Обратите внимание на позицию предлога!

Active sentence Passive sentence
Someone broke into the pet shop.The pet shop was broken into.

Не все предложения можно переделать из the Active Voice в the Passive Voice:

They traveled to Lisbon last summer.

I have a shower every morning.



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The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке