Infinitive or – ing? – be afraid, need, help

Be afraid to do и be afraid of – ing

I am afraid to do something = Я не хочу что-то делать, поскольку это небезопасно или результат действия мне нежелателен:

– The streets in this city are not safe at night. Many people are afraid to go out alone.

– She was afraid to tell her parents that she had broken the neighbour’s window.

I am afraid of something happening = возможность, что случится нечто нежелательное:

– We walked along the path very carefully because it was icy and we were afraid of falling.

– I don’t like dogs. I’m always afraid of being bitten.

Итак, you are afraid to do something, потому что you are afraid of something happening в качестве результата. Сравните:

– The boys were afraid to play football in the garden

because they were afraid of breaking a window.

– I was afraid to stay in the sun because I was afraid of getting burnt.

Need to do и need – ing

I need to do something = мне надо что-то сделать:

– I need to take more exercise.

– He needs to work harder.

– I don’t need to come to the meeting, do I?

Need – ing = необходимость делать что-то :

– The batteries in this radio need changing.

– This jacket is rather dirty. It needs cleaning.

– Do you think the grass needs cutting?


За help следует инфинитив с to или без:

– Everybody helped clean up after the party.

– Can somebody help me move this table?

Существует выражение `can’t help doing something.’

I can’t help doing something = Я не cмог удержаться, чтобы не сделать этого:

– I tried to be serious but I couldn’t help laughing.

– I’m sorry I broke the glass. Someone pushed me and I couldn’t help dropping it.

– He is stupid but it’s not his fault. He can’t help being stupid.

Infinitive or – ing? – be afraid, need, help