Must and have to

Когда мы говорим о необходимости сделать что-либо, то используем must и have to. Часто между ними нет разницы:

– You must have a passport to visit most foreign countries.

Однако, иногда существует разница между must и have to. С помощью must говорящий выражает собственное мнение, и говорит о том, что именно ОН считает необходимым:

– You must help your sister.

– He must not smoke so much.

– He must be at home now.

– The book is not on the shelf. Jean must be reading it now.

– It is six o’clock. She must have come home.

С помощью have to говорящий сообщает не собственное мнение, а объективные факты. Например:

– I have

a terrible toothache. I have to go to the dentist.

Ей необходимо сходить к стоматологу. Посмотрите на ее щеку.

– We are to meet at 5 o’clock.

Обязательство, но оно результат предыдущего соглашения.

– I can’t meet you on Friday. I have to work.

Must можно использовать только в форме настоящего времени. Must нельзя использовать в будущем времени – с помощью must можно говорить о будущем времени.

– We must help her in her work.

Have to может употребляться во всех формах. Например:

– I had to go to hospital.

– She has to rewrite her composition.

– Have you ever had to go to hospital?

Заметим, что мы используем do/does/did c have to в вопросах настоящего и прошедшего времени, а также в отрицательных предложениях:

– What do I have to do get a driving license?

– Why did you have to go to hospital?

Must’t и don’t have to имеют совершенно разный смысл. ‘You must’t do something’ означает, ‘Надо, чтобы вы этого не делали’:

– You mustn’t go there.

– You must not do such things.

– He mustn’t leave the room for a while.

– You must not tell anyone what I said.

‘You don’t have to do something’ означает:

‘Нет необходимости делать это; в этом нет нужды’:

– I don’t have to wear a suit to work but I usually do.

– You don’t have to borrow this book from the library. I’ll give it to you.

Вместо have to можно использовать have got to.

Можно сказать:

– He have to go right now. или – He has got to go right now.

– He have to sell his house. или – He has got to sell his house.

MUST

TO BE TO

HAVE TO

Past

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

I was to meet him

Was she to….

They weren’t to

I had to go there

Did you have….

He did not have

Present

We must go now

Must you go there

I am to meet her

She isn’t to go…

Are they to come

She has do a…

Do you have to do

We don’t have to do

Future

– – – – – – – – – – – – – –

I’ll have to see him

W’ll she have to

They won’t have to



Must and have to