Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was first mentioned in the records dated back to the year 1147. At that time it was a small frontier post. The history of Moscow is connected with the history of Russia. In 1287 Moscow fell under the yoke of the Tatars. And it was the Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy who led the Russian troops to a decisive victory over the invaders in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380. By the 15-th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan III that Moscow became the capital of Moscovy. At that time the Kremlin was rebuilt and the largest Kremlin Cathedrals were erected. During the Troubled Times Moscow was occuped by the Polish invaders, but they were routed by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky. In 1812 the Napoleonic army entered Moscow. The city was set ablaze. The army had to retreat. That was a poor substitute for the military triumph in Russia, so much desired by Napoleon.
Nowadays Moscow is the largest city of Russia. It is a political, administrative, economic, educational and cultural centre of the country. There are many places of interest in Moscow. The city is famous for its historical monuments, museums, art galleries and theatres. The Historical Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Tretyakov State Picture Gallery are world famous. Moscow is proud of the Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. Moscow is an industrial centre with highly developed engineering, electric, light and chemical industries. Moscow is the scientific centre, too. The Russian Academy of Sciences, the oldest university, many schools of higher education, colleges and scientific institutions are located here. Moscow is the country’s largest sports centre. It often becomes a scene of international sports festivals.